In general, naturally conditioned during pregnancy a woman’s body works as a well-balanced and organized machine for babies. Sometimes, however, in the case of Rh incompatibility, it can become an enemy of developing in the womb of the woman’s child. We need to know why this is so:
The risk of Rh immunization in Rh negative women with full-term first pregnancy is 16% if Rh-positive result is ABO compatible with the mother, 2% if the fetus is ABO incompatible and 2-5% for abortion. ABO incompatible red cells immediately destroyed in the maternal circulation, reducing the possibility of the immune system to react.
Rh antigens are represented by three groups of couples Dd, Cc and Ee. The presence of D-antigen determines individual as Rh positive, and its absence as Rh negative.
Rh incompatible pregnancy is possible to be observed in rhesus negative woman pregnant from Rh positive man. In these cases, if the fetus is in the affirmative, causing the so-called. immunization maternal antibody and subsequent fetal damage. The probability in Rh negative mother and Rh positive father to develop Rh positive fruit is 50 to 100% depending on the inheritance of the father / average around 70% /. If you do not know the father’s Rh, the chance to be born Rh positive baby is approximately 60%.
On average 10% of all pregnancies are Rh incompatible, as only 20% of them occurs the formation of antibodies in the mother against D-antigen or called. sensitization. This is a risk factor for injury Rh positive fruit during pregnancy.
Risk of Rh immunization exists for desired abortion, and it is about 2-5%.
In the process of sensitization pass red blood cells from the fetus to the mother and induce the formation of respective antibodies. They can switch back to the fetus during pregnancy, harm red blood cells of the fetus and cause the development of varying degrees of anemia fetus.
Every pregnant woman in the first visit to the gynecologist examined blood type, Rh factor / Rh / and the presence of antibodies in the blood. If the father is Rh negative, there is no risk of the development of Rh incompatible pregnancy. In Rh negative pregnant woman and Rh positive father, the woman is tested for antibodies in early pregnancy, and after the fifth month once a month because antibodies appear usually after 20 weeks gestation -ata at first pregnancy.
Immediately after birth again examine the mother’s blood for antibodies when the baby is Rh positive. If it is Rh negative, there is no risk of antibody formation.
Rh and prevention
Prevention is performed with a single dose of anti-D- gamma globulin unimmunized rhesus pregnant after the birth of a baby Rhesus positive. The same dose is applied in all cases of pregnancy ended in abortion in various obstetric treatments during pregnancy / as amniocentesis /.
In the establishment of Rh incompatible pregnancy and the presence of antibodies in the mother’s blood monitored the amount and growth of the antibodies. In some cases requires strict observation in hospital and the birth of a baby is decided according to its condition and stage of pregnancy.